- Biological: genes, neurotransmitters
- Behavioral: external stimuli, environment, Pavlov's dog, learned and unlearned behaviors
- Psychodynamic: Sigmund Freud, childhood, id, ego, superego, projective test
- Cognitive: attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, thinking
- Humanistic: free will, self-actualization, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, inherently good
- Hermann Ebbinghaus: forgetting curve, memory, learning curve
- Hermann von Helmholtz: founder of experimental psychology
- William James: first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States, natural selection, functionalism
- Wilhelm Wundt: one of the founders of psychology, opened the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany in 1879
- John Locke: a continuity of consciousness
- "Duty to inform" is a term used in law.
- An operational definition is a description of how we will measure our variables, and it is important in allowing others understand exactly how and what a researcher measures in a particular experiment.
- When a neuron is at rest, the neuron maintains an electrical polarization
- (i.e., a negative electrical potential exists inside the neuron's membrane with respect to the outside).
- This difference in electrical potential or voltage is known as the resting potential.
- At rest, this potential is around -70mV.
- Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink
- Secondary Reinforcer: A learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer
- Stimulants are drugs that tend to increase overall levels of neural activity.
- A depressant is a drug that tends to suppress central nervous system activity.
- A hallucinogen is one of a class of drugs that results in profound alterations in sensory and perceptual experiences
- dispositional: internal, personality, authoritarian personality
- situational: external, environment
- Techniques Involving Radiation
- CT (Computerized Tomography): x-ray, tumor, significant brain atrophy, brain structure
- PET (Positron Emission Tomography): picture of active brain, show active and inactive areas of the brain
- Techniques Involving Magnetic Fields
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): generates a strong magnetic field
- fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging): shows changes in brain activity over time, more detailed images of the brain’s structure, better accuracy in time, than is possible in PET scans
- Techniques Involving Electrical Activity
- EEG (Electroencephalography): a measure of a brain’s electrical activity, array of electrodes, overall activity of a person’s brain,
- Reinforce any response that resembles the desired behavior.
- Then reinforce the response that more closely resembles the desired behavior. You will no longer reinforce the previously reinforced response.
- Next, begin to reinforce the response that even more closely resembles the desired behavior.
- Continue to reinforce closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
- Finally, only reinforce the desired behavior.