11. Treatment of Psychological Disorders (Ch 16)

11.1 Insight Therapies: Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches

  • Psychodynamic

    • First practiced by Freud
    • Free-association
      • exploring the unconscious
      • says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
      • reveal repressed and unconscious thoughts
      • insight and awareness
    • Resolution of past conflicts
    • Dream analysis

      • Manifest content: actual dream content
      • Latent content: meaning of dream

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    • Insight and Catharsis

      • Insights: the congnitive shifts in awareness that are produced by the catharsis
      • Catharsis: release of emotions during psychodrama
    • Resistance
      • "I have nothing to talk about today."
      • coming late to a session
      • not showing up to a session,
    • Transference

      • the patient transfers all the positive or negative emotions associated with the patient’s other relationships to the psychoanalyst

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    • Defense Mechanisms

      • Repression & Denail
  • Humanistic

    • Client-centered therapy

      • Carl Rogers
      • active listening
      • non-directive
      • client makes interpretations, not therapist

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    • Self-awareness and self acceptance

      • results in personal growth
    • Unconditional positive regard
    • Nonjudgmental

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11.2 Biological and Drug Therapies

  • Drugs or surgery to alter brain functioning

  • Psychotropic medications

    • antidepressants

      • SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)
      • prevent reuptake of serotonin

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    • anti-anxiety

      • reduce arousal of central nervous system
    • antipsychotics

      • block dopamine
    • ECT - Electroconvulsive Therapy

      • Very severe

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    • Deep Brain Stimulation

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    • Psychosurgery

      • prefrontal lobotomy (no longer used)

11.3 Behavioral Therapies

  • Behavior modification

    • a therapist employs principles of learning to help clients change undesirable behaviors
  • Counterconditioning

    • a client learns a new response to a stimulus that has previously elicited an undesirable behavior
    • exposure therapy

      • systematic desensitization
      • flooding


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    • aversive conditioning


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  • Token economy

    • individuals are reinforced for desirable behaviors with tokens, such as a poker chip, that can be exchanged for items or privileges
    • reward based

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11.4 Cognitive Therapies

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  • How you think determines how you feel and act

  • Change dysfunctional thoughts to relieve distress

  • Cognitive distortion

    • misinterpretation of a situation

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  • Find a more positive, realistic outlook

11.5 Community and Preventative Approaches

  • utilizing the resources of a community can be quite impactful to help alleviate or at least support those symptoms and those people suffering from psychological symptoms.

  • Behavior as an adaptation of resources and circumstances

  • Individuals context in community and larger society
  • Person-environment fit
    • political, cultural and environmental influences-cultural diversity
  • Emphasis on strengths and competencies



  • A treatment technique, often used to treat phobias, that builds upon the principles of classical conditioning is
    • (A) token economy
    • (B) rational-emotive behavior therapy
    • (C) systematic desensitization
    • (D) the placebo effect
    • (E) dream analysis
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used primarily in the treatment of which of the following?
    • (A) Antisocial personality disorder
    • (B) Schizophrenia
    • (C) Depression
    • (D) Mania
    • (E) Sleep disorders
  • Which of the following kinds of therapy attempts to correct irrational beliefs that lead to psychological distress?
    • (A) Behavioral
    • (B) Cognitive
    • (C) Existential
    • (D) Gestalt
    • (E) Psychoanalytic
  • A psychologist using Carl Rogers’ person-centered therapy strives to ensure that clients
    • (A) understand unconscious influences affecting their behavior
    • (B) develop positive thought patterns
    • (C) develop and use effective behavioral techniques
    • (D) receive unconditional positive regard
    • (E) understand their irrational beliefs

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