12. Social Psychology (Ch 12)

12.1 Attribution Processes

  • Attribution theory

    • dispositional attributions
      • internal and trait reasons
      • personality or characteristics
    • situational attributions

      • external and state reasons
      • based on a person's situation or environement

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    • fundamental attribution error

      • others behavior due to disposition, minimizing role of situation factors


    • actor-observer bias

      • viewing others faults as due to dispositional factors, but our faults as situationa

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    • cognitive dissonance theory

      • psychological discomfort arising from holding two or more inconsistent attitudes, behaviors, or cognitions

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12.2 Attitudes and Attitude Change

  • Attitudes

    • evaluation or feelings towards person, idea or object
    • positive or negative; favorable or unfavorable
    • external and internal influences
    • affective, behavioral and cognitive
  • Attitude Change

    • cognitive dissonance

      • internal influence
      • thoughts, feelings and behaviors in conflict
    • persuasion

      • process of changing our attitude toward something based on some form of communication
      • foot-in-the-door technique

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      • door-in-the-face technique

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      • advertising

12.3 Interpersonal Perception

  • Awareness of mental acts present within us

  • Cognitive biases

    • Actor-observed bias (10.1)
    • Halo effect

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    • False consensus

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    • Psychological projection

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12.4 Aggression/Antisocial behavior, and Altruism/Prosocial behavior

  • Frustration-aggression hypothesis
    • it's believed that aggression is always the product of frustration
    • frustration, basically always leads to aggression
  • Hostile aggression
    • intent to cause pain
  • Instrumental aggression
    • intent to achieve goal

Image result for Hostile aggression Instrumental aggression

  • Testosterone

    • higher levels, more easily provoked
  • Antisocial behavior

    • lack of remorse
    • no care for other people’s feelings
    • anger and hostility
    • affect expressed through aggressive acts
  • Social learning theory

    • these elements of acting, behaving, can be learned

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  • Antisocial personality disorder

  • Prosocial behavior

    • Altruism
      • behavior aimed at helping others without expectation of reward or recognition
    • Bystander Effect

      • Kitty Genovese

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12.5 Conformity, Compliance, Obedience

  • Conformity

    • change in person’s behavior to go along with group
    • Solomon Asch Experiments

      • influence of group majority on individual’s judgment

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  • Motivation to Conform

    • normative social influence
      • conform to the group norm to fit in, to feel good, and to be accepted by the group
    • informational social influence

      • conform because believe the group is competent and has the correct information, particularly when the task or situation is ambiguous

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  • Compliance

    • going along with request or demand
    • desire to fit in, be liked and gain information about the group
    • groupthink: going along with others to form consensus, even if wrong/disagree
    • social loafing

      • individual performance drops in presence of group (e.g., tug-of-war)


    • social facilitation

      • performing better in presence of others (e.g., sports)


  • Obedience

    • doing what an authority figure tells you to do
    • concerned about consequence if they do not comply
    • Stanley Milgram Experiments

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  • When insulted by a friend, Sally’s first impulse was to strike him. Instead, she yelled loudly and kicked a door several times. This means of reducing aggressive impulses exemplifies which of the following?

    • (A) Repression
    • (B) Fixation
    • (C) Displacement
    • (D) Conservation
    • (E) Sublimation


  • Tameka regularly sets goals, plans for attaining those goals, and monitors her progress. Her activities are most closely associated with

    • (A) high extrinsic motivation
    • (B) high achievement motivation
    • (C) high extraversion
    • (D) low extrinsic motivation
    • (E) low achievement motivation

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  • Tom fails his math exam. If he explains his failure by using an internal attribution, his reason for failing might be which of the following?

    • (A) The teacher was unclear when presenting the material in class.
    • (B) Tom’s job did not leave him enough time to study.
    • (C) The person sitting next to Tom during the exam was very distracting.
    • (D) There was not enough time allotted to complete the exam.
    • (E) Tom is not smart or not good at math.
  • Which of the following terms refers to the strategy of making a small request to gain listeners’ compliance, then making a larger request?

    • (A) Door-in-the-face
    • (B) Foot-in-the-door
    • (C) Social facilitation
    • (D) Matching
    • (E) Overjustification
  • Similarity, proximity, and familiarity are important determinants of

    • (A) observational learning
    • (B) attraction
    • (C) sexual orientation
    • (D) aggression
    • (E) imprinting

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