6. Cognition (Ch 7)

6.1 Intelligence and Creativity

  • Intelligence is our inherent potential for learning
    • How well you solve problems
  • Alfred Binet
    • first intelligence test
    • intelligence quotient (IQ)
    • comparison between test taker score and average

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  • g-factor theory of intelligence(Charles Spearman)

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  • Triarchic theory of intelligence (Robert Sternberg)
    • analytic intelligence (academic skills)
    • practical intelligence (problem solving)
    • creative intelligence

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  • Fluid intelligence (Raymond Cattell)
    • How fast you can learn new things
    • respond to your environment
    • puzzle ability
  • Crystallized intelligence (Raymond Cattell)
    • Using skills, experience and learned knowledge to solve problems

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  • What leads to differing levels of intelligence?
    • Nature vs nurture
    • intelligence hereditary
    • learning environment
  • Learning disabilities
    • dysgraphia
    • dyslexia

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  • Creativity
    • ability to generate, create or discover new ideas, solutions and possibilities
    • divergent thinking-“outside of the box”
    • facet of intelligence-difficult to measure objectively

6.2 Language

  • Use of words and systematic rules to transmit information (and solve problems)
  • Form of communication used uniquely by humans
  • Way of getting ideas from one person to another
  • Spoken, written or signed
  • Components of Language
    • lexicon and grammar
    • phoneme and morphemes combined to form word
    • syntax and semantics used to construct language

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  • Noam Chomsky
    • Language Acquisition Device
    • Universal Built-in System

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6.3 Memory

  • Sensory memory
    • the memory system that is triggered by the various senses that we have
    • lasts only brief moments, seconds and nanoseconds
  • Short-term/working memory
    • information left in the mind long enough to solve problems
    • Capacity of 7 items +/- 2
  • Long-term memory
    • extra effort required to transfer from short-term
    • Unlimited capacity

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  • Mnemonic strategies
    • can be deliberate or unconscious
    • method of getting information into long-term memory or keeping more in short-term
    • rehearsal, chunking, spelling

6.4 Thinking and Problem Solving

  • Heuristics

    • representativeness heuristic

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    • availability heuristic

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  • Trial and Error

  • Algorithm

  • Problem solving pitfalls (Biases)

    • confirmation
    • hindsight
    • representative
    • availability


  • Functional fixedness

    • become very limited in seeing the utility of things in my environment.

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  • Priming is considered part of implicit memory because it
    • (A) occurs without conscious awareness
    • (B) often involves emotions
    • (C) helps in recognition but not in recall
    • (D) plays an important role in autobiographical memory
    • (E) requires deep encoding
  • In problem solving, which of the following approaches almost always guarantees a correct solution?
    • (A) Insight
    • (B) Heuristic
    • (C) Algorithm
    • (D) Critical thinking
    • (E) Convergent thinking

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