7. Motivation and Emotion (Ch 10)

7.1 Theories of Emotion

  • Emotion: a psychological state involving three distinct components
    • subjective experience
    • physiological response
    • behavioral or expressive feature
  • Mood
    • prolonged, less explicit, affective state
    • not usually determined by a single event

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  • James-Lange theory

    • stimulus causes arousal → emotion
    • facial feedback hypothesis
  • Cannon- Bard theory

    • relevant stimulus generate arousal
    • information sent to central nervous system and cortex
    • "It's a cannon"
  • Two-factor theory

    • quality of emotional experience depends on how arousal is labeled
    • excitation transfer


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7.2 Theories of Motivation

  • What drives us? What makes us behave as we do?

  • Motivation

    • Describes the wants or needs that direct behavior towards a goal
  • Drive theory

    • deviations from homeostasis create physiological needs to regain balance
    • e.g., no food → blood sugar⬇️ → hunger
    • habit- likely to engage in previous behaviors that met need

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  • Yerkes-Dodson law

    • optimal arousal levels depend on complexity and difficulty of task
    • complex task→ low arousal
    • simple task→ high arousal

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  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    • physiological needs→ basic needs→ self-actualization
    • ongoing lifelong process

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7.3 Biological Bases: Hunger, Thirst, Sex, Pain

  • Hunger

    • biological instinct for survival
    • empty stomach → hunger pains and chemicals that initiate hunger in brain
    • glucose: blood sugar from food that provides energy for body
    • insulin: helps reduce glucose levels thus impacting hunger
    • hypothalamus

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    • set-point: weight your body works to maintain

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    • Eating Disorders
      • social and cultural pressures for ideal beauty
      • anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder

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  • Thirst

    • Produced by depletion of fluid outside and within cells
    • Peripheral and central nervous system
      • subfornical organ and lateral hypothalamic nucleus
    • Angiotensin: produced by the kidneys

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  • Sexual behavior

    • Sexual motivation from Limbic System

      • amygdala
      • nucleus accumbens

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    • Hormones produced in endocrine system

      • estrogen (women)
      • testosterone (both)
    • Dr. Alfred Kinsey

      • Kinsey scale: used to categorize individual’s sexual orientation

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    • Masters and Johnson

      • sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution

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  • Biology of Pain

    • Nociception process
    • contact with stimulus
    • reception: nerve ending sense stimulus
    • transmission: relayed to central nervous system
    • pain center reception: brain further processes

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  • Types of Pain
    • Physical pain
      • physical characteristics, intensity and interpretation
      • acute vs chronic
    • Social pain
      • pain of social disconnection
    • Psychological pain
      • depression and other mental disorders

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7.4 Social Motivation

  • Human need to interact with others and be accepted by them
  • extrinsic
    • receive something from others
  • intrinsic
    • biological motives
    • sense of personal satisfaction

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  • Albert Bandura

    • We ultimately have a strong drive for self efficacy and that's what leads people to succeed
    • self-efficacy motivates behavior

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  • Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus will result in which of the following behaviors in laboratory rats?
    • (A) An increase in sexual behavior
    • (B) An increase in eating behavior
    • (C) An increase in visual processing speed
    • (D) A decrease in auditory perception
    • (E) A decrease in memory functioning
  • Which of the following is a disadvantage of relying on external rewards to motivate behavior?
    • (A) There is potential to reduce extrinsic motivation
    • (B) There is potential to reduce intrinsic motivation
    • (C) It increases fear of failure
    • (D) It increases fear of success
    • (E) It decreases competency
  • One theory of the effects of arousal holds that efficiency of behavior can be described as an inverted U-shaped function of increasing arousal. Which of the following accurately describes this relationship?
    • (A) Greater arousal leads to better performance
    • (B) Greater arousal leads to poorer performance
    • (C) Low and high levels of arousal lead to poorest performance
    • (D) Overarousal leads to performance efficiency
    • (E) Underarousal leads to performance efficiency
  • Which of the following presents a pair of needs from Abraham Maslow’s hierarchical need structure, in order from lower to higher need?
    • (A) Belongingness, safety
    • (B) Self-actualization, physiological needs
    • (C) Physiological needs, safety
    • (D) Esteem, belongingness
    • (E) Self-actualization, esteem
  • Which of the following scenarios best illustrates the facial feedback hypothesis of emotion?
    • (A) Bill is a good card player who shows no emotion in his face that would reveal what he is thinking
    • (B) Ellen says that hanging up the laundry on a clothesline makes her feel happy; she holds the clothespins in her teeth as she hangs each piece of clothing
    • (C) Juanita fakes a smile to make her friends think she is happy
    • (D) Paul has been blind from birth and has never seen emotional faces, but he has emotional facial expressions similar to those of a sighted person
    • (E) As a result of Raj smiling at his customers, they smile at him

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