8. Developmental Psychology (Ch 9)

8.1 Research Methods: Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Cross-sequential

  • Cross-sectional

    • comparing people of different ages at same point in time
    • similarities due to context of a cohort can confound findings

      A chart shows an example of a cross-sectional design. The year is 2004 and three separate cohorts are included in a study. Participants in Cohort "A" are two tears old. Participants in Cohort "B" are six years old. Participants in Cohort "C" are eight years old.

  • Longitudinal

    • tracking single cohort (age group) over long period of time
    • lose participants due to life circumstances or drop out

      • threatens validity of study

      Chart of a longitudinal research design. Child "A" is first observed in 2004 at the age of two. Child "A' is next observed in 2006 at age four. The next observation is in 2008 when Child "A" is six. Finally, in 2010 at the age of eight Child "A" is observed again.

  • Cross-sequential

    • people of different ages (like cross-sectional) are followed over long periods of time (like longitudinal)
    • helps to reduce confounding variables

      A chart of a sequential design: The study begins in 2002 with Cohort "A" who are two years old. The study continues in 2004. Cohort "A" are now fours years old. They are joined in the study by Cohort "B" who are two years old. The final year of the study is 2006. Cohort "A" is six years old, Cohort "B" is four years old, and third cohort is added, Cohort "C" who are two years old.

Image result for Cross-sectional cross-sequential, longitudinal

8.2 Theories of development

  • Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

    • sensorimotor: 0-2

      • knowledge through the senses
      • gradually acquire object permanence
    • pre-operational: 2-6

      • egocentric
      • use symbolic thought: words, images
      • inability to understand conservation
    • concrete operations: 6-12
      • logical rules for concrete problems
    • formal operations: 12 +
      • thinks scientifically and hypothetically about abstract principles

Image result for Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

Image result for Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

  • Freud’s Psychosexual Theory

    • Oral: 0-1

      • mouth pleasure center-sucking reflex
    • Anal: 1-3

      • learn to control bodily functions
      • toilet training
    • Phallic: 3-6

      • sexual desires towards opposite sex parent
      • Oedipus and Electra complex

        Image result for Electra complex

    • Latency: 6-12

      • sexual instincts subside
      • develop superego and conscious
    • Genital: 12+

      • sexual impulses reemerge

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  • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development


8.3 Dimensions of development: physical, cognitive, social, moral

  • Physical

    • Infancy to childhood
      • 5-7 lbs and 2-3 inches per year
      • brain: 55% at age 2→ 90% at age 6
      • motor development
    • Adolescence
      • maturing of adrenal and sexual glands
      • rapid increase in height
      • menarche and spermarche
    • Adulthood
      • Early - physical maturation complete
      • Middle - gradual physical decline
      • Late - last stages of physical change
  • Cognitive

    • Infancy to childhood
      • significant development of cognitive abilities and thought processes
      • language and communication skills: partially inborn, partially learned
    • Adolescence
      • more complex abilities: processing speed and efficiency
      • more capable of abstract thought
      • cognitive empathy
    • Adulthood
      • complex, ever changing
      • crystallized intelligence
      • late: decline in fluid intelligence
  • Social

    • Infancy to childhood

      • attachment theory by Bowlby: avoidant, resistant, disorganized, secure

      Image result for avoidant, resistant, disorganized, secure

      Image result for avoidant, resistant, disorganized, secure


      • Sense of self and parenting style: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved

      Image result for authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved

      Image result for authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved

    • Adolescence

      • form identity, pull away from parents
      • peer relationships become central focus
      • Social media
    • Adulthood

      • need to have and find meaning
      • define oneself based on career
      • familial relationships central focus
  • Moral: Kohlberg's stages of moral development

    • Infancy: right and wrong-what feels good or bad
    • Toddler: right and wrong-what they are told by others
    • Preschool: internalize family values, consequences of behaviors
    • 7-10: strong sense of “should” and “should not
    • Preteen/teen: reason abstractly “right” and “wrong”, aware of larger society

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8.4 Gender identity and sex roles

  • Gender identity
    • sense of being male or female
    • gender dysphoria
      • discomfort identifying with one’s biological sex
      • 6 months (DSM 5)
  • Sex/gender roles
    • sex role beliefs→ sex role stereotypes
      • ex: men are more aggressive, women more delicate
    • expected gender behaviors based on societal norms
    • sex role socialization
      • born male or female→ taught to be masculine or feminine

Image result for gender identity Sex/gender roles psychology

8.5 Heredity-environment issues

  • Nature/Heredity
    • all genes and hereditary factors influence who we are
    • characteristics and traits are product of evolution
  • Nurture/Environment
    • everything we are and know is based on experience
    • behaviorism: all or most behaviors result from learning and conditioning
  • How nature and nurture interact, not one or the other

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  • In which of the following areas does research show most clearly that girls develop earlier than boys?

    • (A) Independence from parents
    • (B) Athletic competence
    • (C) Intellectual achievement
    • (D) Adolescent physical growth spurt
    • (E) Self-actualization

      Image result for girls develop earlier than boys psychology physical growth

  • Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas have classified temperament into which of the following clusters?

    • (A) Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational
    • (B) Easy, difficult, slow to warm up
    • (C) Secure, insecure, resilient
    • (D) Authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent
    • (E) Preconventional, conventional, postconventional

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  • Developmental psychologists are most likely to prefer longitudinal research designs to cross-sectional research designs because longitudinal designs
    • (A) usually yield results much more quickly
    • (B) offer the advantage of between-subjects comparisons
    • (C) are much less likely to be influenced by cultural changes that occur over time
    • (D) utilize the participants as their own experimental controls
    • (E) are more valid

Image result for Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Cross-sequential

  • Researchers know that infants’ sense of smell is fairly well developed at birth because newborns prefer the smell of
    • (A) sweet-smelling to the smell of sour-smelling foods
    • (B) meat to the smell of fruits
    • (C) a nursing pad from their mother to the smell of a pad from another mother
    • (D) an acid to the smell of a base
    • (E) a baby’s clothing to the smell of an adult’s clothing
  • A young child breaks her cookie into a number of pieces and asserts that ‘‘now there is more to eat.’’ In Jean Piaget’s analysis, the child’s behavior is evidence of
    • (A) formal operations
    • (B) concrete operations
    • (C) conservation
    • (D) preoperational thought
    • (E) sensorimotor behavior



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