9. Personality (Ch 11)

9.1 Assessment Techniques

  • Self-report inventories (Ex: MMPI-2)

    • 587 questions
    • reliable and valid


    • lie scale: “faking good”

      Image result for lie scale:

  • Projective tests

    • projection to assess unconscious
    • Rorschach Inkblot Test

      Image result for Projective tests

    • Thematic apperception test (TAT)

      Image result for thematic apperception test psychology

9.2 Growth and Adjustment

  • Personality growth
    • proactive
    • conscious process
    • self-development
  • Personality adjustment
    • reactive
    • coping with challenges of life
    • cultural components

9.3 Personality Theories and Approaches

  • Psychoanalytic approach: Sigmund Freud

    • Motives behind behavior: sex and aggression


    • Id
      • biological
      • pleasure principle
      • "I want it, and I want it now"
    • Ego
      • realistic
      • reality principle
      • "You cann't always get what you want"
    • Superego
      • social
      • morality principle


    • Anxiety

      • conflict over how to behave
      • defense mechanisms
      • "I don't believe it, it can't be, it can't be true."
      • "No, I don't believe it."


    • Psychosexual stages
      • anal, oral, phallic, latent and genital
      • Electra and Oedipal complex
      • castration anxiety and penis envy

    Image result for castration anxiety and penis envy

  • Humanistic approach: Carl Rogers

    • Person-centered theory
    • Strive for Congruence:

      • Self concept: what we think we’re like
      • True self: talents, desires, thoughts and feelings we have
      • Ideal self: would like to be

      Image result for True self ideal self

    • Conditions of worth

      • imposed by parents
      • “must”, “should”
    • Unconditional positive regard

      • Empathic
      • Accepting and genuine

      Image result for Unconditional positive regard

  • Social-cognitive approach

    • How people think about themselves and relate to the world around them
    • Reciprocal determinism

      • how people think, behave and interact with their environment determines consistency of behavior
      • Cognitive dissonance

      Image result for reciprocal determinism

  • Trait / Individual-difference approach

    • Measuring ways people differ
    • Self-report questionnaires

      Image result for trait approach to personality

    • The Big Five (Five Factor Model)

      • factor analysis
      • OCEAN


9.4 Self-concept, Self-esteem

  • Self-concept
    • self image, self consciousness
    • understanding of unchanging characteristic
    • social, physical, psychological
  • Self-esteem
    • extent accept or approve of self
    • how much value self
    • reaction of others,comparison with others, social roles, identification

Image result for Self-concept, Self-esteem

9.5 Research Methods: Idiographic, Nomothetic

  • Idiographic approach
    • focus on what makes us unique
    • qualitative methods
      • case studies
      • informal interviews
      • unstructured observation
    • humanistic
  • Nomothetic approach
    • focus on what we share with others
    • quantitative methods
      • experiment
      • correlation
      • psychometric testing
    • behaviorists, cognitive and biological

Image result for Idiographic, Nomothetic

Image result for Idiographic, Nomothetic

Image result for Idiographic, Nomothetic comparison


  • The use of projective tests is associated with which of the following psychological approaches?
    • (A) Behaviorism
    • (B) Psychoanalysis
    • (C) Cognitive behaviorism
    • (D) Humanism
    • (E) Functionalism


  • The key distinction between a personality trait and an attitude is
    • (A) centrality
    • (B) salience
    • (C) durability
    • (D) direction
    • (E) valence
  • An attribution that focuses on an individual’s ability or personality characteristics is described as
    • (A) situational
    • (B) collectivist
    • (C) dispositional
    • (D) stereotypic
    • (E) homogeneous

Image result for dispositional

Image result for dispositional

  • The case study method of conducting research is justifiably criticized because
    • (A) the researcher cannot focus on a specific individual
    • (B) the researcher cannot collect detailed observations
    • (C) the results are difficult to generalize to a larger population
    • (D) it does not allow for the generation of hypotheses that can be tested in future experiments
    • (E) it does not allow

results matching ""

    No results matching ""